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不同類型的壓縮空氣干燥機,所達到的不同的節能效果

   【壓縮機網】Every facility has differing application needs and usage demands, but selecting the right compressed air dryer for the situation will have a significant impact on energy savings and efficiencies.
  每種工廠設備都有不同的應用需求和用氣量要求,根據具體情況選擇合適的壓縮空氣干燥器將對節能和效率產生重大影響。
  Compressed air systems account for a significant portion of a facility’s overall operating costs. Choosing the right type of compressed air dryer for the application, and making sure that dryer is using energy in proportion to the demand when possible, can yield major savings over the life of the system.
  壓縮空氣系統占整體設備運行成本的很大一部分。為不同應用選擇合適類型的壓縮空氣干燥機,并確保干燥機的能耗盡可能地符合需求比例,就可以在系統的使用壽命期間,極大地節省成本。
  Two categories of air dryers — refrigerated dryers and desiccant dryers — are widely used in industrial applications, and both have a place in the market. There isn’t a one-size-fits-all dryer solution for every facility. However, looking at the energy costs associated with the various options can help determine which solution will be most beneficial.
  有兩種類型的干燥機-冷凍式干燥機和吸附式干燥機(干燥劑吸附)-這兩種干燥機在工業中都得到廣泛應用,都在市場上占有一席之地。沒有一種適用于所有設備的干燥機解決方案。然而,我們可以查看能源成本并做出相關選擇;從而可以幫助確定哪種解決方案最有益。
 
 不同類型的壓縮空氣干燥機,所達到的不同的節能效果
         意大利富瑞FRIULAIR冷凍式干燥機
 
  Typically, refrigerated dryers are the most economical to purchase and maintain, and they work well for most general manufacturing applications. These dryers yield air with a pressure dew point between 38 and 50 degrees F.
  通常情況下,冷凍式干燥機在購買和維護上是最經濟的,而且它們在大多數一般的制造應用中,運行良好。這些冷凍式干燥機產生空氣的壓力露點在38到50華氏度之間。(3.3-10攝氏度)
  Refrigerated dryers reduce the temperature of compressed air through contact with a cold medium. Since cold air cannot hold as much moisture as hot air, saturated air condenses out moisture as the air temperature decreases, drying the air. The resultant moisture is removed using a moisture separator within the dryer and eliminated from the dryer through the drain system.
  冷凍式干燥機通過與冷媒接觸來降低壓縮空氣的溫度。由于冷空氣不能容納像熱空氣那樣多的水分,隨著空氣溫度的降低,飽和的空氣凝結出水分,使空氣干燥。由此產生的水分通干燥機內的氣水分離器除去,并通過排水系統從干燥機中排出。
  Refrigerated dryers generally fall into two categories: non-cycling and cycling, both of which use a refrigeration system to cool the compressed air. The two technologies differ in that once a non-cycling dryer is powered on, the refrigeration system runs continuously regardless of demand, while a cycling dryer can store cold energy within the unit until it is needed, which offers the ability to use energy in proportion to the demand. Most non-cycling dryers include a hot gas bypass valve to keep the dryer from freezing.
  冷凍式干燥器一般分為兩類:非循環式和循環式(周期工作型),兩者都通過制冷系統來冷卻壓縮空氣。兩者在技術的不同之處在于,一旦非循環式冷干機啟動,制冷系統就會持續運行,而不管需求如何;而循環式(周期工作型)冷干機可以在機組內儲存冷能,直到需要時才使用,這就提供了根據需求使用能源的能力。大多數非循環式冷干機包含一個熱氣體旁通,以防止冷干機冰堵。
  Because cycling dryers can store cold energy until it is needed, they help facilities conserve energy. Cycling dryers use the refrigeration system to cool a glycol-water mixture. This thermal mass exchanges heat with the warm air coming into the system, thereby cooling the air and warming the thermal mass. Once the thermal mass temperature rises above a set point, the refrigeration system is activated. The refrigeration system drives down the temperature of the thermal mass until it reaches the desired low temperature, at which point the refrigeration system turns off. This type of operation uses only the energy required to address the incoming air load on the dryer, another boost to energy efficiency.
  由于循環式(周期工作型)冷干機可以儲存冷能量,直到需要時才使用,它們有助于節約能源。循環式(周期工作型)冷干機使用制冷系統來冷卻乙二醇-水混合物。這種儲熱體與進入冷干機系統的熱空氣交換熱量,從而冷卻空氣并加熱儲熱體。一旦儲熱體溫度上升到一定的溫度點以上,制冷系統就會啟動。儲熱體的溫度,直到達到預期的低溫為止,制冷系統就會關閉。這種操作只根據進入冷干機的空氣負荷來使用能量,這又提高了能量利用效率。
  Different air drying technologies yield different energy costs. The electrical costs for refrigerated dryers are essentially the refrigeration compressor, the controls and, in the case of an air-cooled unit, the condenser fans. Some units might have other components, such as a thermal mass pump, that make a minor contribution to the overall energy consumption.
  不同的空氣干燥技術會帶來不同的能源成本。冷凍式干燥機的耗電成本主要是制冷壓縮機、控制裝置,如果是風冷機組,則是冷凝器風扇。有些機組可能有其他部件,如儲熱體,占總體能耗的很小一部分。
  Non-cycling refrigerated dryers are the least expensive models to purchase. However, cycling dryers provide the ability to use energy in proportion to demand, so they may ultimately be the least costly to own over the life of the dryer.
  非循環式冷凍式干燥機是購買成本最低的機型。然而,循環冷干機根據實際需求,按比例消耗能源,因此在冷干機的全壽命周期內,它們最終可能是成本最低的。
  不同類型的壓縮空氣干燥機,所達到的不同的節能效果  
Desiccant Dryers吸附式干燥機(干燥劑吸附)

  Desiccant dryers, which provide air with a pressure dew point ranging from -40 to -100 degrees F, use two towers, each filled with desiccant material. While one tower adsorbs the moisture and dries the air, the second tower is regenerated. By alternating tower functions, desiccant dryers provide a constant stream of very dry air.
  吸附式干燥機(干燥劑吸附)為壓縮空氣提供-40到-100華氏度(-40到-73攝氏度)的壓力露點,使用兩個塔,每個塔都充滿吸附劑。當一個塔吸附水分并干燥空氣時,第二個塔被再生。通過2個塔的交替切換,吸附式干燥機提供持續的非常干燥的空氣流。
  Instead of relying upon a refrigeration system that cools the air, desiccant dryers use porous desiccant beads to adsorb moisture from untreated air. Desiccant dryers, which provide air with a pressure dew point ranging from -40 to -100 degrees F, use two towers, each filled with desiccant material. While one tower adsorbs the moisture and dries the air, the second tower is regenerated. By alternating tower functions, desiccant dryers provide a constant stream of very dry air.
  吸附式干燥機不依賴冷卻空氣的制冷系統,而是使用多孔干燥劑吸附未經處理的空氣中的水分。吸附式干燥機為空氣提供-40到-100華氏度的壓力露點,使用兩個塔,每個塔都充滿干燥劑。當一個塔吸附水分并干燥空氣時,第二個塔被再生。通過交替切換功能,吸附式干燥機提供穩定的非常干燥的空氣流
  Desiccant dryers are good for applications where outdoor compressed air piping is subject to freezing. Critical applications, such as pharmaceutical and food applications, require the particularly dry air that is beyond what a refrigerated dryer is able to provide. There are three types of desiccant dryers used widely in the market: heatless, heated and blower purge. Energy costs vary by the type of desiccant dryer, with the energy use tied mostly to the manner of regeneration of the desiccant material.
  吸附式干燥機適用于室外壓縮空氣管道被凍結的場合。苛刻的應用環境,例如制藥和食品行業,需要特別干燥的壓縮空氣,冷凍式干燥機無法提供。市場上廣泛使用的吸附式干燥機有三種:無熱再生吸附式干燥機、有熱再生吸附式干燥機和鼓風機式再生吸附式干燥機。能源成本因吸附式干燥機的類型而異,能源的消耗量取決于干燥劑的再生方式。
  Generating compressed air is an expensive process, and heatless dryers use about 15 percent of the compressed air emerging from the dryer to remove moisture from the desiccant beads, in order to regenerate it. This means that even though heatless desiccant dryers are less elaborate and often have no added electrical components other than the controls on the dryer, they can actually be higher consumers of energy compared to the other desiccant technologies because the cost of diverting 15 percent of the compressed air must be factored into overall energy costs.
  壓縮空氣的生產是一項昂貴的流程,無熱再生吸附式干燥機使用干燥機排出的15%左右的壓縮空氣來去除干燥劑中的水分,以便再生。這意味著,即使無熱再生吸附式干燥機原理不那么復雜,而且除了干燥器上的控制器之外,通常沒有額外的電氣部件,但它們實際上可以比其他吸附式干燥機消耗更多的能源。和其他吸附式干燥機相比,無熱再生吸附式干燥機消耗15%的成品干燥壓縮空氣,這個成本必須計入總能源成本。
  Heated desiccant dryers incorporate a heater in the regeneration circuit of the dryer. This type uses a combination of heat and airflow to regenerate the desiccant adsorption beads in the regenerating tower. So while heated dryers consume additional energy with the supplementary heater, they use about half the compressed air for regeneration than that of heatless dryers. Therefore, heated dryers often are less costly to operate than heatless desiccant dryers.
  微熱再生吸附式干燥機在干燥機的再生回路中裝有加熱器。這種吸附式干燥機使用熱量和氣流相結合的方式來再生塔中的干燥劑吸附劑。因此,當有熱再生吸附式干燥機與輔助加熱器一起消耗額外能量時,它們使用再生壓縮空氣的量只是無熱再生吸附式干燥機的一半。因此,有熱再生吸附式干燥機的操作成本通常比無熱再生吸附式干燥機低。
  The third type of desiccant dryer, blower purged units, do not use compressed air to regenerate the desiccant. Instead, this model has a dedicated blower to draw air from the surrounding environment. Because the airflow is generated by the blower, the total air capacity of the air compressor is available at the dryer outlet. This means the expense of compressed air for regeneration is not a factor, but there is the added energy use from the electric motor used to drive the blower.
  第三類型吸附式干燥機,使用鼓風機裝置,這種吸附式干燥機不再使用壓縮空氣來進行再生。這種類型的吸附式干燥機有一個專用的鼓風機從周圍的環境中吸收空氣。因為氣流是由鼓風機產生的,所以空氣壓縮機的所產生的壓縮空氣,在鼓風機式吸附式干燥機的出口沒有損耗。這意味著不再產生再生壓縮空氣的費用,但是有一個因素要考慮,用于驅動鼓風機的電動機的附加能耗。
  The bottom line with desiccant dryers regarding energy consumption: Dryers that rely on large quantities of compressed air for regeneration probably will be more expensive to operate than dryers requiring less compressed air. Of the different desiccant designs, the blower purge type has the greatest up-front cost but is often the most efficient to operate because it does not use expensive compressed air for regeneration.
  吸附式干燥機(使用干燥劑吸附)的底線是能耗:依靠大量壓縮空氣進行再生的吸附式干燥機運行費用可能比需要較少壓縮空氣的吸附式干燥機更昂貴。在不同的吸附式干燥機的設計中,鼓風機式的前期成本最大,但由于不使用昂貴的壓縮空氣進行再生,所以往往是在能耗上效率最高的。
  Many manufacturers do make desiccant dryers with technology that can regulate the switching and the compressed air consumption based on the demands on the dryer, which helps to make them more energy efficient. Such energy management systems typically either sense if the moisture front in the tower has reached a certain level, or they measure the actual output dew point of the dryer. This technology can prolong the switch-over of the towers, so the dryer’s regeneration cycle is not starting on a fixed increment of time but instead being initiated based on demand. Alternatively, the energy management systems may hold the purge valves closed, preventing purge air from being used until it is needed for regeneration.
  許多制造商確實通過調節開關,根據實際應用需求,調節干燥機對壓縮空氣消耗的使用,來制造吸附式干燥機,這有助于提高能源使用效率。這類能源管理系統通常會感應到塔內的濕度是否達到一定的水平,或者測量干燥機的實際輸出露點。這種技術可以延長吸附塔的開關時間,因此吸附式干燥機的再生周期不是以固定的時間開始,而是根據需要啟動。或者,能源管理系統可以保持再生門關閉,防止消耗再生空氣,直到需要再生時才使用再生氣。
  Reliability Issues可靠性問題
  While energy use accounts for a significant portion of a compressed air system’s operating costs, reliability also should be factored in when considering the total cost of ownership.
  雖然能源使用占壓縮空氣系統運行成本的很大一部分,但在考慮總的使用擁有成本時也應考慮到運營可靠性的問題。
  Refrigerated dryers use hermetic refrigeration systems, meaning the refrigerant is not exposed to the atmosphere, so they typically require low maintenance and service to keep the system running.
  冷凍式干燥機使用密封制冷系統,這意味著制冷劑不暴露在大氣中,因此通常需要較低的維護和服務來保持系統的運行。
  Desiccant dryers involve frequent valve-switching to direct air to either the drying or regeneration tower, and these models often operate in high-heat, high-demand applications. Therefore, this equipment requires more service and valve maintenance. Downtime for that maintenance should be factored into the overall life cycle cost of the product.
  吸附式干燥機涉及到吸附塔和再生塔之間頻繁的閥門切換,并且往往工作在高溫和高要求的應用條件下。因此,該設備需要更多的服務和閥門維護。應該把維修的停機時間考慮到整個產品的生命周期成本中。
  User Needs用戶需求
  First and foremost, user needs should dictate the choice of dryer technology. Refrigerated dryers have substantially lower up-front and energy operating costs than desiccant dryers, but they are not able to provide air that is as dry. For general manufacturing processes, the refrigerated dryer option probably will be sufficient. Desiccant dryers provide the driest air for critical applications, but have higher up-front and energy costs.
  首先也是最重要的是,用戶的需求應該決定干燥機的技術選擇。冷凍式干燥機比吸附式干燥機具有更低的前期和能耗運行成本,但是它們不能提供像吸附式干燥機那樣干燥的空氣。對于一般的制造工藝而言,選擇冷凍干燥機可能是足夠的。吸附式干燥機為苛刻的應用要求提供最干燥的空氣,但是有更高的前期和能耗成本。
  In making the selection, users should consider if the pipe work associated with the process is located in a conditioned or unconditioned space. Desiccant dryers are the best choice if the piping is exposed to harsh conditions, such as temperatures that are below 40 degrees F.
  在做選擇時,用戶應考慮壓縮空氣管道是安裝在有溫度調節的空間,還是安裝在室外。如果管道暴露在惡劣的條件下,如溫度低于華氏40度(4.4攝氏度),吸附式干燥機是最好的選擇。
  If a downstream process machine requires that the air be drier than what a typical refrigerated dryer can deliver, point-of-use equipment may be the right answer. Such a system may use refrigerated dryers for most of the applications and desiccant models only where they are needed for specific applications.
  如果下游的加工設備要求空氣比典型的冷凍式干燥機所能提供的空氣更干燥,那么在用氣點根據要求再選擇干燥機可能是正確的答案。這樣的系統可以在大多數應用中使用冷凍式干燥機,只有在特定應用需要時才能使用吸附式干燥機。
  Consider System Optimization考慮系統優化
  While energy savings can be achieved by selecting the proper dryer for specific applications, system optimization should also be considered for all air systems to maximize efficiency and minimize operating costs.
  雖然可以通過為特定的應用選擇適當的干燥機來節省能源,但也應考慮對所有壓縮空氣系統進行系統優化,以最大限度地提高效率和盡量減少運行成本。
  Dryers are one part of a full compressed air system, and inefficiency of the system as a whole can have as much impact on energy costs as the dryers themselves. Fixing and repairing piping and valve leaks, maximizing air use within a facility and maintaining all compressed air equipment can help recoup the up-front dryer costs by ensuring the system as a whole is operating more efficiently.
  壓縮空氣干燥機是全壓縮空氣系統的一部分,整個系統的效率低下對能耗成本的影響與壓縮空氣干燥機本身一樣大。安裝和修理管道與閥門,最大限度地利用工廠內的空氣,以及維護所有壓縮空氣設備,可以確保整個系統更有效地運行,從而幫助收回前期壓縮空氣干燥機的成本。
  The value of a compressed air audit and consideration of the system as a whole to determine true energy costs should not be overlooked. Compressed air system optimization is key for organizations looking to reduce energy costs.
  對壓縮空氣系統價值的審核和整個系統的統合考慮,才能確保真正的能耗成本不被忽視。壓縮空氣系統的優化是企業尋求降低能源成本的關鍵。
 

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